Phishing - is a scam that involves internet pop-ups or e-mail messages that appear to be from a legitimate bank or retail merchant, possibly one that the victim has a business relationship with. The message directs the victim to a replica of an existing website in an attempt to fraudulently acquire sensitive information such as usernames, passwords, account information and credit card details. Often suspects use urgency or scare tactics such as threats to close accounts.
Spoofing - is when an attacker pretends to be someone else by providing false data. Phishing has become the most common form of web page spoofing. Another form is URL spoofing. This can happen when an attacker exploits bugs in your web browser in order to display incorrect URLs in your browser location bar. Another form is called "man-in-the-middle" which occurs when the communication between you and another party on the internet is compromised by the attacker. Many firewalls can prevent this type of attack.
Vishing - is a combination of "voice" and phishing. This attack usually starts via e-mail which contains a telephone number to be called. This is an attempt to fool the victim into trusting the e-mail is legitimate by advising that responding via telephone is safer than responding by e-mail. Caller ID spoofing is usually accounted for by the attacker and a complex automated voice system tricks the unsuspecting caller into relinquising their information.
Pharming - is a type of fraud that happens when a valid web address is typed in but the victim is then redirected to a website that is not legitimate. These "fake" websites ask for personal information such as credit card and bank account numbers and other sensitive information.